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What are the Key challenges that India will face in achieving net zero by 2070 from the energy aspect

Dablu Kumar Yadav, Undergraduate


India’s ambitious goal of achieving net zero emissions by 2070 is commendable, but it does face several significant challenges in the energy sector. Let’s explore some of these challenges. India faces several key challenges in achieving net zero emissions by 2070 from an energy perspective. India is the third-largest greenhouse gas emitter in the world, which signifies a must have policies to overcome a number of significant obstacles to reach net zero. There is various area where Indian people and the government has to work hard to achieve the target of net zero. The main challenges  that India will face in achieving net zero are discussed below:


Heavy Reliance on Fossil Fuels: India's energy sector heavily relies on coal, which is a major source of carbon emissions. Transitioning away from coal to cleaner energy sources such as renewable will be challenging due to the existing infrastructure and the economic significance of coal. India is still heavily dependent on coal for its energy needs. Transitioning away from fossil fuels and towards renewable energy sources is a significant challenge. However, the rapid growth in renewable energy production in India is paving the way to net zero emissions.

Infrastructure Development: Scaling up renewable energy infrastructure to meet the growing energy demands of a developing nation like India requires significant investment and time. Building the necessary infrastructure for renewable energy generation and distribution will pose logistical and financial challenges.


Energy Access and Equity: Ensuring universal access to clean and affordable energy while simultaneously reducing emissions can be a balancing act. Many parts of India still lack reliable access to electricity, and transitioning to cleaner energy sources must not exacerbate energy poverty or socio-economic disparities.


Intermittency of Renewable Energy: Solar and wind energy, while abundant, are intermittent sources of power. India will need to invest in energy storage technologies and grid modernization to effectively integrate renewable energy into its power grid and ensure a stable energy supply.


Technological Innovation: Achieving net zero emissions will require continuous technological innovation in energy generation, storage, and distribution. India will need to invest in research and development to drive down the costs of renewable energy technologies and improve their efficiency.


Policy and Regulatory Framework: Implementing effective policies and regulations that incentivize renewable energy deployment and penalize carbon-intensive activities is crucial. India needs stable and consistent policy frameworks to attract investments in clean energy and facilitate the transition to a low-carbon economy.


Balancing Economic Growth and Environmental Sustainability: India's energy transition must be carefully managed to ensure that it does not hinder economic growth. Balancing the need for development with environmental sustainability requires strategic planning and coordination across multiple sectors.


Addressing these challenges will require a concerted effort from the government, private sector, and civil society to transition India's energy system towards sustainability while ensuring energy security and socio-economic development. India has to prioritize a robust policy framework, make investments in renewable energy, encourage innovation, and guarantee a fair transition for all parties involved in order to overcome these obstacles. Achieving net zero will include cooperation from government, business, and the general public.

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