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Impact of Global Warming on Biodiversity and Eco-system

Soumya Sahoo, Postgraduate

Fakir Mohan Autonomous College, Keonjhar

Global warming poses a significant threat to biodiversity, with rising temperatures and changing climates disrupting ecosystems worldwide. The Royal Society reports that climate change is already affecting biodiversity through increased frequency of extreme weather events, such as fires, storms, and droughts, which can devastate habitats and species. Greenpeace UK highlights the alarming trend of wildlife population declines, with a 69% decrease in just over 40 years, and the potential for 20-30% of species to face extinction if global temperatures rise by 1.5-2.5 degrees Celsius. These changes are not uniform across the globe; polar regions, tropical rainforests, and coastal areas are particularly vulnerable. The loss of biodiversity not only impacts the species and habitats directly affected but also undermines the natural defenses against climate change, such as carbon sequestration by forests and oceans. To mitigate these effects, it is crucial to protect natural habitats and promote biodiversity, which in turn can help regulate the climate and reduce the overall impact of global warming. Efforts to address climate change must therefore include strategies to preserve and restore biodiversity, ensuring the resilience of ecosystems and the multitude of services they provide to humanity.

Global warming has profound impacts on ecosystems, altering species distribution, population dynamics, and ecosystem services. Rising temperatures and changing precipitation patterns disrupt the delicate balance of ecosystems, leading to shifts in biodiversity and increased vulnerability of species. For instance, changes in temperature and precipitation are affecting plant growth and animal behaviour, which in turn influences the overall health and functionality of ecosystems. These changes can lead to a cascade of effects, including the spread of invasive species and the loss of habitats, which ultimately affect the services ecosystems provide to humanity.

Habitat Loss and Fragmentation: Rising temperatures and changing precipitation patterns alter habitats, leading to habitat loss and fragmentation. This disrupts ecosystems and reduces the availability of suitable habitats for many species, leading to declines in populations and biodiversity loss.


Shifts in Species Distribution: As temperatures rise, many species are shifting their ranges to track suitable climate conditions. This can lead to mismatches between species and their habitats, disrupt ecological interactions, and increase competition for resources, potentially leading to local extinctions.


Changes in Phenology: Global warming alters the timing of biological events such as flowering, breeding, and migration, disrupting ecological relationships and ecosystem functioning. Mismatches in phenological events between species, such as pollinators and flowering plants, can have cascading effects throughout food webs.


Loss of Biodiversity: Climate change exacerbates existing threats to biodiversity, such as habitat destruction, invasive species, and pollution. This can lead to species extinctions and a loss of genetic diversity, reducing the resilience of ecosystems to environmental change and compromising their ability to provide essential ecosystem services.


Ocean Acidification: Increased atmospheric CO2 levels lead to ocean acidification, which poses significant threats to marine biodiversity. Acidification affects calcifying organisms such as corals, shellfish, and plankton, impairing their ability to build shells and skeletons and disrupting marine food webs.


Coral Bleaching: Rising sea temperatures cause coral bleaching, a phenomenon where corals expel the symbiotic algae that provide them with food and color, leading to widespread coral mortality. Coral reefs support diverse marine ecosystems and provide essential habitat for numerous species, so their decline has far-reaching ecological consequences.


Increased Extinction Risk: Climate change exacerbates the extinction risk for many species, particularly those with limited dispersal ability or specialized habitat requirements. Species that are already threatened or restricted to small ranges are particularly vulnerable to the impacts of global warming.


Ecosystem Services: Climate change alters the provision of ecosystem services such as water purification, pollination, and carbon sequestration. Disruptions to these services can have significant implications for human well-being, including impacts on food security, water quality, and natural disaster mitigation.


Addressing the impacts of global warming on biodiversity and ecosystems requires urgent action to mitigate climate change by reducing greenhouse gas emissions and enhancing the resilience of ecosystems through conservation and adaptation measures. Collaboration between governments, conservation organizations, businesses, and local communities is essential to safeguard biodiversity and ensure the long-term sustainability of ecosystems in the face of climate change.

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